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Barriers, facilitators, and interventions for medication adherence across chronic conditions with the highest nonadherence rates: a scoping review with recommendations for intervention development

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Authors: Konstantinou, P., Kassianos, A. P., Georgiou, G., Panayides, A., Papageorgiou, A., Almas, I., Wozniak, G., Karekla, M.

Abstract: Medication non-adherence (MNA) constitutes a complex health problem contributing to increased economic burden and poor health outcomes. The Medication Adherence Model (MAM) supports that numerous processes are involved in medication adherence (MA). Based on the MAM and guidelines of the World Health Organization (WHO), this scoping review aimed to identify the barriers and facilitators associated with MA, and the behavioral health interventions and techniques among chronic conditions presenting with high non-adherence rates (asthma, cancer, diabetes, epilepsy, HIV/AIDS, and hypertension). PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases were screened, and 243 studies were included. A mixed methods approach was used to collate the evidence and interpret findings. The most commonly reported barriers to MA across conditions were younger age, low education, low income, high medication cost, side effects, patient beliefs/perceptions, comorbidities, and poor patient–provider communication. Additionally, digitally delivered interventions including components such as medication and condition education, motivational interviewing (MI), and reinforcement and motivational messages led to improvements in MA. This review highlights the importance of administrating multicomponent interventions digitally and personalized to the patients’ individual needs and characteristics, responding to the adherence barriers faced. This is the first review examining and synthesizing evidence on barriers and facilitators to MA and behavioral health interventions used for improving MA across chronic conditions with the highest non-adherence rates and providing recommendations to researchers and clinicians. Stakeholders are called to explore methods overcoming barriers identified and developing effective multicomponent interventions that can reduce the high rates of MNA.

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